Jodenregister van Antwerpen. Collection

Jodenregister van Antwerpen. Collection

Rechtenhouder
Centraal Beheer voor Joodse Weldadigheid en Maatschappelijk Hulpbetoon [Central Bureau for Jewish Welfare and Social Aid], Antwerp
Originele bestandsnaam
Jodenregister van Antwerpen. Collection
Categorieën
Anti-Jewish measures
Trefwoorden
Identification measures
Beschrijving
The German decree of 28 October 1940 made it compulsory for all Jews from the age of 15 to register in the Jewish register of the municipality where they officially lived. The names of younger children were added to the forms of the parents (in most cases the copy of the father). Each form has room for the following information : surname, first names, date and place of birth, profession, nationality, religion, date of arrival in Belgium, the country of migration, successive addresses, date and place of registration, and the person’s signature, but also name, date and place of birth and religion of the spouse, the parents, the grandparents and the children. However, in case of the Jewish Register of Antwerp in most cases only surname, first names, date and place of birth, nationality, successive addresses, date of arrival in Belgium and the names of children were filled out.
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  • Registre des Juifs de Belgique - Jodenregister van België. Series

    Registre des Juifs de Belgique - Jodenregister van België. Series

    Rechtenhouder
    Jewish Museum of Belgium, Brussels - Digitised by Kazerne Dossin, Mechelen
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Jewish register of Belgium. Series.
    Trefwoorden
    Identification measures, Registration
    Beschrijving
    The German decree of 28 October 1940 made it compulsory for all Jews from the age of 15 to register in the Jewish register of the municipality where they officially lived. The names of younger children were added to the forms of the parents (in most cases the copy of the father). Each form has room for the following information : surname, first names, date and place of birth, profession, nationality, religion, date of arrival in Belgium, the country of migration, successive addresses, date and place of registration, and the person’s signature, but also name, date and place of birth and religion of the spouse, the parents, the grandparents and the children. Most of the time not all the information was filled out during the registration process. The Jewish register of Belgium contains ca. 45,000 registration forms from more than 250 municipalities. The registers of Charleroi, Liège (Lüttich/Luik) and Mons (Bergen) are missing.
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  • Immigration files of Jews, Roma and Sinti, compiled by the Belgian Public Safety Office and its successor, the Belgian Aliens Police (Vreemdelingenpolitie - Police des Étrangers). Collection

    Immigration files of Jews, Roma and Sinti, compiled by the Belgian Public Safety Office and its successor, the Belgian Aliens Police (Vreemdelingenpolitie - Police des Étrangers). Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    National Archives of Belgium – Digitised by Kazerne Dossin, Mechelen
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Immigration files of Jews, Roma and Sinti, compiled by the Belgian Public Safety Office and its successor, the Belgian Aliens Police (Vreemdelingenpolitie - Police des Étrangers). Collection
    Categorieën
    German Occupation, Postwar Jewish life, Prewar Jewish life
    Trefwoorden
    Administration, Belgium, Identification measures, Migration, Refugees
    Beschrijving
    This collection contains a selection of files compiled by the Belgian Aliens Police (Vreemdelingenpolitie - Police des Étrangers), relevant for research on the Holocaust in Belgium : the files of Jews, Roma and Sinti deported from the Dossin barracks, the files of Jews living in Belgium and deported from France, the files of Jewish armed resistance fighters, the files of Jewish members of hiding networks, the files of Jews detained at the Breendonk camp for political prisoners, and the files of Jews liberated at or released from the Dossin barracks.
    The information on the cover of each file refers to persons related to the foreigner : children, business associates, family members who lived in or passed through Belgium… The content of the files can be very diverse. In general, every file contains a questionnaire filled out by the foreigner upon arrival in Belgium, address changes, birth certificates, marriage certificates and death certificates (in case an immigrant passed away in Belgium). For many refugees from Nazi-Germany, the file also contains a political refugee questionnaire. In files created after 1914 photos are often inserted. In case a person was politically active and/or came in to contact with the police, the file might also contain police reports and correspondence with the police force at the last place of residence abroad.
    When a foreigner in Belgium married, the files of both partners were merged. When a child turned 15, his file was separated from that of his parents. A file was closed once all persons represented in the file were deceased, obtained Belgian nationality or had left the country.

    The search engine will produce relevant immigration files when searching for a name. The collection cannot be searched as a whole.
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  • Lewkowicz family. Collection

    Lewkowicz family. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Lewkowicz family. Collection
    Categorieën
    Prewar Jewish life, Anti-Jewish measures
    Trefwoorden
    Daily life, Deportees, Family life, Identification measures, Migration
    Beschrijving
    This collection contains: the IDs of siblings Jakob Lewkowicz and Perla Lewkowicz; six photos of the Lewkowicz family including photos of the Lewkowicz family at the time of their migration to Belgium, photos of youngest daughter Rosine Regine Lewkowicz and photos of the Lewkowicz children with friends.
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  • Jozua Deutsch. Collection

    Jozua Deutsch. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Jozua Deutsch. Collection
    Categorieën
    Postwar Jewish life, Resistance
    Trefwoorden
    Armed resistance, Identification measures, Jewish organisations, Liberated prisoners, Political prisoners
    Beschrijving
    This collection contains: a proof of employment from 1942 issued by the Association of Jews in Belgium to Jozua Deutsch, who was working for the Hilfe für Zurückgebliebenen ; two diplomas issued to Jozua Deutsch by the Belgian authorities after the war, according him the Cross for Political Prisoners 1940-1945 and the Commemorative Medal 1940-1945 with two crossed sabers ; two post-war membership cards of the Amicale Armée Secrète – Sureté (AMISAS), the association of former members of the Secret Army resistance network ; a post-war membership card of the Fraternelle de l'Armée Secrète or Brotherhood of the Secret Army, an association of former members of the Secret Army resistance network ; Jozua Deutsch’s post-war membership card of the Vereeniging van Joodsche Politieke Gevangenen [Association of Jewish Political Prisoners] ; a political prisoner card issued to Jozua Deutsch by the Belgian Ministry of Reconstruction after the war ; a war service record card issued by the Kingdom of Belgium to Jozua Deutsch after the war.
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  • Diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia to Matus Kugel. Item

    Diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia to Matus Kugel. Item

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia to Matus Kugel. Item
    Categorieën
    Resistance
    Trefwoorden
    Civil resistance, France, Identification measures, Refugees, Rescuers - Individual
    Beschrijving
    A diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia, represented by Baron O. de Bogaerde, Minister Plenipotentiary, to Matus and Chaja Kugel-Rubin, granting them diplomatic immunity and allowing them to travel to Spain and Portugal. The passport also contains wartime visa for Italy and Monaco.
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  • Diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia to Kelman Charles Mincberg. Item

    Diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia to Kelman Charles Mincberg. Item

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia to Kelman Charles Mincberg. Item
    Categorieën
    Resistance
    Trefwoorden
    Civil resistance, France, Identification measures, Refugees, Rescuers - Individual
    Beschrijving
    A diplomatic service passport issued by the Republic of Liberia, represented by Baron O. de Bogaerde, Minister Plenipotentiary, to Kelman Charles Mincberg, granting him diplomatic immunity and allowing them to travel to Spain and Portugal.
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  • Files of the municipality of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek on the anti-Jewish measures. Collection

    Files of the municipality of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek on the anti-Jewish measures. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    The municipality of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek - digitised by Kazerne Dossin
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Files of the municipality of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek on the anti-Jewish measures. Collection
    Categorieën
    Anti-Jewish measures
    Trefwoorden
    Administration, Collaboration, Identification measures, Judenrat, Registration, Yellow badge
    Beschrijving
    This collection consists of six files regarding the implementation of anti-Jewish measures in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek:
    KD_00015_0001: Circulars addressed to the municipality of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek regarding the creation of a Jewish Register, the addition of a stamp ‘Jood-Juif’ on the ID cards of Jewish inhabitants, the elimination of the German nationality for Jews, the wearing of the yellow badge and the Arbeitseinsatz (convocations for forced labour) in August 1942
    KD_00015_0002: The Jewish Register of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, which consists of 553 forms. Each form lists the following information: surname, first names, date and place of birth, profession, nationality, religion, date of arrival in Belgium, the country of migration, successive addresses, date and place of registration, and the person’s signature, but also name, date and place of birth and religion of the spouse, the parents, the grandparents and the children. Children younger than 15 were registered on their parents’ entry.
    KD_00015_0003: An alphabetical list of all Jews living in Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, mentioning their full name, date and place of birth, profession and address.
    KD_00015_0004: A handwritten repertory of 140 Jews from Sint-Jans-Molenbeek, mentioning their name and the number of their form in the Jewish Register of the municipality.
    KD_00015_0005: Copy of Le Moniteur belge – Belgisch Staatsblad (Belgian official journal) of 21 March 1942, containing the statutes of the Association of Jews in Belgium.
    KD_00015_0006: Photos of the original binder containing the Jewish Register of Sint-Jans-Molenbeek
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  • Jette (Brussels). Documents regarding the implementation of anti-Jewish measures, selected from the municipal archives. Collection

    Jette (Brussels). Documents regarding the implementation of anti-Jewish measures, selected from the municipal archives. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Municipal archives, Jette - digitised by Kazerne Dossin, Mechelen
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Jette (Brussels). Documents regarding the implementation of anti-Jewish measures, selected from the municipal archives
    Trefwoorden
    Administration, Anti-Jewish Economic measures, Education, Identification measures, Politics, Registration, Social measures, Yellow badge
    Beschrijving
    KD_00031_0001: Folder "Instructions pour Israelites", containing copies of several Verordnungsblatter, circular letters issued by the province and notes regarding the implementation of the anti-Jewish measures in Jette (Brussels).
    KD_00031_0002: Folder "Documents service interne", containing correspondence with federal authorities, circular letters, lists of Jews whom bought the yellow star (star of David), notes on Jewish children whom turned 15 regarding their registration in the municipal Jewish register, letters regarding the nationality of Jewish inhabitants of Jette, documents regarding Jewish pupils and schools.
    KD_00031_0003 : Jewish register of Jette. Each form contains the name, date and place of birth, profession, nationality, religion, date of arrival in Belgium, the last country the person has left, address, date and place of registration of a person, and information regarding the spouse, parents, grandparents and children.
    KD_00031_0004: Name index of the Jewish register of Jette, accessible only at the Kazerne Dossin documentation center.
    KD_00031_0005 : Folder "Recensement des Juifs au 15 août 1941", a list of all Jews living in Jette on the mentioned date, containing 149 names.
    KD_00031_0006: Folder "Juifs entrée", containing a notebook "Repertoire Israélites" with the names and addresses of Jewish inhabitants of Jette and their date of departure/going into hiding, typed lists of registered Jews and confirmation notes sent to other municipalities confirming the registration of certain individuals.
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  • Manes Klinger. Collection

    Manes Klinger. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Manes Klinger. Collection
    Categorieën
    Prewar Jewish life, Deportations, Anti-Jewish measures
    Trefwoorden
    Arbeitseinsatz, Deportees, Economic measures, Germany, Identification measures, Industry and commerce, Military service, Refugees
    Beschrijving
    This collection contains documents regarding Manes alias Martin Klinger's life in Germany, his work for copyright agencies including Auteursbureau ALMO, Independant Management Entity, attestations from employers, correspondence, his passport, documents regarding his service in the German army during the First World War, family photos and two medals awarded to Manes Klinger.
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  • Gert (Gerhard) Lilienthal. Collection

    Gert (Gerhard) Lilienthal. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Gert (Gerhard) Lilienthal. Collection
    Trefwoorden
    Administration, Allied forces, Art, Daily life, Deportees, Holocaust survivors, Identification measures, Industry and commerce, Refugees, Transit camps
    Beschrijving
    KD_00059_0001 : Judaica concerning Jewish emancipation and the German liberal revolution of 1848 ; remains of the looted collection of Berlin banker dr. Heinz Lilienthal, father of the donor.
    KD_00059_0002 : Prewar Lilienthal family documents, including vaccination certificates, birth certificates, marriage certificates, documents related to dr. Heinz Lilienthal’s business, a household inventory and household budget.
    KD_00059_0003 : Wartime Lilienthal family documents, including three letters sent from the Dossin barracks by Hilda Kirschstein and Minni Marie Fabian, mother and maternal grandmother of the donor, to the donor and Louise Reiche, paternal grandmother of the donor, in 1943.
    KD_00059_0004 : Post-war documents certifying the non-hostile status of Gert Lilienthal as a German citizen, papers stating Gert Lilienthal’s employment with the American army and a copy of the death certificate of dr. Heinz Lilienthal, father of the donor.
    KD_00059_0005 : Correspondence from the 1960s regarding attempts made by Gert Lilienthal to obtain Belgian nationality, including a short biography.
    KD_00059_0006 : Drawings by Gert Lilienthal, donor.
    KD_00059_0007 : Two photocopied newspaper clippings, regarding the German invasion in May 1940 and the liberation of Antwerp in September 1944.
    KD_00059_0008 : Pre-war and post-war photos of the Lilienthal family, including pictures taken at "Confiserie Lilly" (Lilly Sweets), the family sweets store at Belgiëlei in Antwerp.
    KD_00059_0009 : Two manuscripts, dated 1987 ; one containing war-time correspondence between Lilienthal family members in Belgium and France, and one containing Gert Lilienthal's memoires. The manuscripts were not digitized and are available at the Kazerne Dossin documentation centre.
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  • Van Velzen-Viskoper family. Collection

    Van Velzen-Viskoper family. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Van Velzen-Viskoper family. Collection
    Categorieën
    Prewar Jewish life, Postwar Jewish life, German Occupation, SS-Sammellager Mecheln (Dossin barracks)
    Trefwoorden
    Deportees, Family life, Forced labour, Holocaust survivors, Identification measures, Industry and commerce, Postwar research, Reconstruction, Repatriation, Transit camps
    Beschrijving
    This collection contains: a pre-war photograph of Barend and Rebecca van Velzen-Viskoper ; a postcard from the brothers Louis, Benjamin and Salomon van Velzen sent from camp Jawischowitz to the Papegaai family in Antwerp in 1943 ; a postcard from A. van Wien to Mathilda Randolfi sent from camp Westerbork ; a photograph of Benjamin van Velzen taken just after his repatriation in 1945 ; documents concerning the war damage suffered by the van Velzen family, including statements about the emptying of their house ; documents concerning Benjamin van Velzen's application for recognition as a political prisoner ; correspondence and certificates concerning the estate of Louis van Velzen and Sara Halberstadt ; documents concerning the application for Wiedergutmachung for the deported Adele Keyser ; post-war work permits of Benjamin van Velzen ; post-war identity card of Benjamin van Velzen ; registration at the commercial court of Benjamin van Velzen’s post-war business.
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  • Goldberg-Goldberg family. Collection

    Goldberg-Goldberg family. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Goldberg-Goldberg family. Collection
    Categorieën
    Prewar Jewish life, German Occupation, Anti-Jewish measures, SS-Sammellager Mecheln (Dossin barracks), Hiding, Resistance, Postwar Jewish life
    Trefwoorden
    Armed resistance, Art, Commemoration, Daily life, Deportees, Family life, Hidden adults, Holocaust survivors, Identification measures, Rescuers – Individual, Yellow badge
    Beschrijving
    This collection contains: pre-war and wartime pictures of Sarah Goldberg’s family, and a group photo of repatriated female Auschwitz survivors ; a testimony written post-war by Sarah Goldberg, documenting her experiences in the concentration camps ; documents regarding the wartime and post-war life of the family of Jacques Goldberg, future husband of Sarah Goldberg, in hiding as the Goffin family, including several fake Belgian IDs ; propaganda leaflets ; three worn yellow stars ; photocopy of a letter sent by Sarah Goldberg and her fiancée Henri Wajnberg after their arrest to Henri’s family ; post-war ID cards and certificates documenting Sarah and Jacques Goldberg's membership of several communist and Jewish resistance networks and survivor associations, including the Independent Front or Front de l’Indépendance ; three post-war paintings depicting Sarah Goldberg ; photos and documents regarding the recognition of priest Laurent Couppé, rescuer of the family of Jacques Goldberg, as Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem, and the planting of a tree in his honour ; the obituary of Laurent Couppé in the magazine “Geloof en Leven” ; a pamphlet documenting Jacques and Sarah Goldberg’s life drafted for the inauguration of the street in Brussels named after them in 2013.
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  • Patrick Verwerft. Collection

    Patrick Verwerft. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Patrick Verwerft, Private collection, Belgium
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Patrick Verwerft. Collection
    Categorieën
    SS-Sammellager Mecheln (Dossin barracks), Deportations, Antisemitism, German Occupation, Anti-Jewish measures, Resistance
    Trefwoorden
    Antisemitism, Arbeitseinsatz, Collaboration, Forced labour, France, Ghettos, Identification measures, Industry and commerce, Jewish organisations, Liberated prisoners, Propaganda, Yellow badge
    Beschrijving
    This collection contains: documents of Michel Van West and his family, detained at the Dossin barracks and deported via Transport XXIV ; documents of René Basch, detained at and released from the Dossin barracks ; a statement on behalf of Max Kirschen confirming his release from the Dossin barracks ; Rose Goldine 's payment slip proving her membership of the Association of Jews in Belgium ; certificate exempting Charles Sternberg from wearing the yellow star ; order addressed to Laure Nejman-Reich to report to the Sipo-SD headquarters in Brussels ; one worn yellow star ; postcard from Max Margulies, deported from Drancy and working as a slave labourer in Jawiszowice, to his sister Hermine Margulies in Antwerp ; letter from the Association of Jews in Belgium accompanying the Arbeitseinsatzbefehl or work orders ; Arbeitseinsatzbefehl or work order addressed to Alta Bajla Czeresznja and Rozia Klarman, both deported from France ; leaflet of the Association of Jews in Belgium regarding the requirements of packages delivered to the Dossin barracks ; parcel request form filled out by Ida Radunska, liberated at the Dossin barracks, and Rosa Erlich and Sara Stefanie Spitz, both deported via Transport XXIII ; documents from the Red Cross regarding the delivery of parcels to the Dossin barracks ; circular letter from the city of Vilvoorde regarding the expulsion of Jews from all public posts ; documents regarding the Arian descent of employees in multiple Belgian companies and government organisations ; anti-Semitic leaflets, newspaper clippings, posters and postcards with anti-Semitic vignettes or stamps ; several letters and postcards sent to and from POWs ; certificate from the Geheim Leger - Armée Secrète (Secret Army) confirming that Mrs. Duriau-Blicq was a resistance fighter ; postcards and forms from the Theresienstadt / Terezin and Litzmannstadt / Lodz ghettos ; postcards from Stuttgart to the Association of Jews in Belgium requesting food parcels for Jews deported from Belgium and detained in Buchenwald ; letter from Siegfried Sonnenfeld, detained in Le Vernet and deported from France, to his family in Belgium ; a wartime ID issued to Edouard Van West ; a post-war ID issued to Alberthina Van West.
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  • Tolkowsky family. Collection

    Tolkowsky family. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Tolkowsky family. Collection
    Categorieën
    Prewar Jewish life, Resistance, Postwar Jewish life
    Trefwoorden
    Armed resistance, Art, Daily life, Deportees, Economic measures, Family life, France, Identification measures, Industry and commerce, Jewish organisations, Military service, Spoliation
    Beschrijving
    This collection consists of 13 files :
    KD_00045_0001: Miscellaneous photographs of the Tolkowsky family from Antwerp, including Charles Tolkowsky as an officer in the Belgian Army during the First World War, André Tolkowsky, son of Charles Tolkowsky, member of the Belgian resistance during the Second World War, Alexander de Vries and his wife Denise Tolkowsky, photos of vacation colony villa Altol, pictures taken during holidays at the Belgian coast and at the Francorchamps race track.
    KD_00045_0002: Documents concerning Denise Tolkowsky and Alexander de Vries, including poems, drawings, school reports, letters from Denise’s siblings and documents sent by the Feldkommandantur
    KD_00045_0003: Documents concerning Charles Tolkowsky and Ginette Sevi and their sons André and Jacques, including documents regarding Charles’ military career and spoliation.
    KD_00045_0004: Documents concerning Samuel Tolkowsky and Anna Kennes, parents of Denise Tolkowsky, including letters from family members.
    KD_00045_0005: Documents concerning a trip to Congo of Alice Tolkowsky and Nicolas Boruchovitz. Maps, a menu from the ship, a concert program from the ship, a passenger list (1937).
    KD00045_0006: Letters from Palestine/Israel sent by Samuel Tolkowsky (nephew of Samuel Tolkowsky, father of Denise Tolkowsky) to Ginette Sevi (1945-1950).
    KD00045_0007: Letters from Alfred (?) addressed to Georges, comte de Charny (Avenue Marie Antoinette 42, Paris)
    KD00045_0008: Postcards sent by the Tolkowsky family to the Netherlands (1917)
    KD00045_0009 : Catalogue ‘L’Union Artistique des jeunes’ (1889).
    KD00045_0010: Writing paper and envelope with the Tolkowsky logo.
    KD00045_0011: Hand drawn map of France and England indicating the evolution of the military front (not digitised)
    KD00045_0012: Items belonging to musician Alexander De Vries (glasses, bullet cases, fabrics, yellow star torn from clothing).
    KD00045_0013: Recordings of TV interviews and films (not digitised)
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  • Verordnungsblatt des Militärbefehlshabers in Belgien und Nordfrankreich - Massnahmen gegen Juden. Collection

    Verordnungsblatt des Militärbefehlshabers in Belgien und Nordfrankreich - Massnahmen gegen Juden. Collection

    Rechtenhouder
    Contact Kazerne Dossin Documentation Centre: archives@kazernedossin.eu
    Originele bestandsnaam
    Verordnungsblatt des Militärbefehlshabers in Belgien und Nordfrankreich - Massnahmen gegen Juden. Collection
    Categorieën
    Anti-Jewish measures
    Trefwoorden
    Curfew, Economic measures, Education, Forced labour, Identification measures, Industry and commerce, Jewish organisations, Judenrat, Mixed marriages, Nazi apparatus, Registration, Social measures, Spoliation, Yellow badge
    Beschrijving
    This collection consists of 20 issues of the Verordnungsblatt des Militärbefehlshabers in Belgien und Nordfrankreich, containing the anti-Jewish measures ordained in Belgium, including: legislation on ritual slaughter, determining who is Jewish, the municipal registration of Jews as of the age of 15, the registration and marking of Jewish shops and restaurants with placards, the exclusions of Jews from certain professions (government, educational, press, judicial and later medical professions), the residency restrictions (curfew and relocation sites in Belgium), the creation of the Association of Jews in Belgium, the ban on travelling abroad, the expulsion of Jewish pupils from non-Jewish schools, the compulsory employment for the Jewish unemployed, the confiscation of Jewish property by the German Reich and the wearing of the yellow badge.
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