Bijkomende meta info
- This collection contains: a pre-war class photograph of the Tachkemoni school ; pre-war wedding photos of the Reichman siblings and the Lipschitz siblings ; pre-war photos of the Reichman siblings and Lipschitz siblings with their spouses, children and friends ; a pre-war photo of Israel Lipschitz playing the violin ; wartime photos of Israel Lipschitz and his wife Rachel Mandel recta Kwadrat, including a photo of them wearing the yellow star ; a wartime photo of Jacob Marcovici, future husband of the donor, with the group of children he was hidden with ; wartime photos of Sam Lipschitz while serving as a soldier in the British army ; post-war photos of Sylvie Reichman who survived the war in hiding ; post-war photos of Fanny Reichman and her daughters in the company of their rescuer Misses Bellemans
- MAES Jan, Omstanders, slachtoffers, daders. Een verhaal van individuele keuzes en morele verantwoordelijkheid tijdens de jodenvervolging in de omgeving van Antwerpen, research paper, Catholic University of Leuven, 2006.
- Reichman-Lipschitz family
- Original item KD_00141_P000830 is part of the Kazerne Dossin collection. The other items were added to the collection as reproductions.
- Paula Marcovici-Reichman, Private collection
- Digital copy available as collection KD_00141 at Kazerne Dossin
- 21 digitised image (21 photos)
- The pictures of Abraham and Jacob Lipschitz, which are part of this collection, are also added to the Give them a Face portrait collection (KD_00017).
Eugeen Reichman was born in Satu Mare, Romania, on 6 July 1901, as the eldest child of Ludovic Reichman (born on 22 April 1876 in Halmeu, Romana) and Fanny alias Fani Roth (born on 18 November 1879 in Satu Mare). Eugeen had five younger siblings: Myriam alias Marie born on 18 November 1902, Joseph born on 3 July 1904, Alexander born on 15 March 1907, Benjamin alias Benoit born on 29 September 1908 and Mor alias Maurice born on 1st August 1910. Eugeen became a diamond cutter and migrated to Belgium in 1923. Here, he married Feige Toba alias Fanny Lipschitz who was born in Skierniewice, Poland, on 7 June 1910 as the daughter of Leibus Joel Lipchitz (born in 1883 in Skierniewice, Poland) and Haia Sipa Lebenthal (born on 14 May 1883 in Skierniewice, Poland). Feige also came from a large family and had six siblings: Jacob Mozes born on 8 November 1908, Anna Rosa born on 12 May 1912, Abraham Emmanuel born on 11 March 1914, Lazar born on 31 July 1916, Samuel born on 19 August 1918 and Israel Iszaak born on 2 November 1922.
On 10 May 1940 Nazi-Germany invaded Belgium. Eugeen’s brother Alexander Reichman fled to France with his wife Rosa Schiff and their son Oscar. They lived in hiding in the French cities Béziers, La Canourgue, Grenoble (where they assumed the false identities of Alfons Ryckmans and Rozette Abiad) and Moirans. Alexander and his family survived the war in France and returned to Belgium in June 1945.
Meanwhile in Belgium Eugeen Reichman and his family obeyed the anti-Jewish decrees installed by the German authorities. In December 1940 he registered in the municipal Jewish register of Antwerp. Apart from himself and his wife Feige, his form also mentions their three daughters, who were all born in Antwerp: Esther Regina on 13 May 1931, Paula on 19 February 1936 and Celine on 9 June 1937. At the time of registration the family lived at Lange Kievitstraat 105 where they still resided when they became members of the Association of Jews in Belgium in April 1942. By then disaster had already struck: Eugeen’s mother Fanny Roth had passed away on 27 June 1941. On 6 January 1942 Eugeen’s father Ludovic married Feiga alias Fanny Glatt, who was born on 28 September 1880 in Ulanow, Poland.
In August and September 1942 the German authorities organized four large anti-Jewish raids in Antwerp. Thousands of men, women and children were arrested and deported from the Dossin barracks. The raids coincided with the distribution of work orders from Organisation Todt that were sent to over 1500 Jewish men in Antwerp, ordering them to report themselves for forced labour on the Atlantic Wall in northern France. Although sources are unclear surviving members of the Reichman family indicate that Eugeen as well as his brothers Joseph, Benjamin alias Benoit and Mor alias Maurice received such a work order and turned to the Association of Jews in Belgium for information on what to do. The men were advised to report themselves in order to protect their families. The Reichman brothers thus left together and, instead of being sent to France, were deported from the Dossin barracks in Mechelen to Auschwitz-Birkenau via transport X on 15 September 1942. All four of them were murdered.
After his departure Eugeen’s wife Feige Lipschitz went into hiding with their daughters, receiving help from Misses Bellemans. Feige first found living quarters in Brussels and later moved the family to Wallonia. She and the three girls all survived the war. Paula went on to marry Jacob Marcovici and built a family.
Unfortunately, the Reichman family did suffer many losses in addition to the four brothers. Benjamin Reichman’s wife Itta Grunspan was arrested the same day her husband turned himself in and was also deported via transport X and murdered. However, she was able to hide her daughter Sylvie who survived the war in hiding with the Sluys-Schuyten family in Boechout and the Rooze family in Leuven. Mor Reichman’s wife Julianna alias Fuba Schvarz and their daughter Suzanne were arrested during the fourth raid in Antwerp and deported from the Dossin barracks to Auschwitz-Birkenau via Transport XI on 26 September 1942. Both were murdered. Joseph Reichman’s wife Therese Klein and their children André and Catharina were deported from the Dossin barracks to Auschwitz-Birkenau via transport XIII on 10 October 1942. All were killed. Myriam Reichman, Eugeen’s only sister, had already lost her husband Zoltan Grosz, who had been deported from the Dossin barracks to Auschwitz-Birkenau via Transport IX on 12 September 1942. Myriam and her children Paula, Alexander and Anna alias Annie were discovered while hiding with the Sluys-Schuyten family in Boechout on 31 January 1943. All were deported from the Dossin barracks to Auschwitz-Birkenau via Transport XX on 19 April 1943, and killed. Ludovic, father of the Reichman siblings, and his second wife Fanny Roth were on the same train and were also murdered.
Eugeen’s wife Feige also lost many relatives on her side of the family. Her eldest brother Jacob Mozes Lipschitz was claimed as a forced labourer for Organisation Todt in the summer of 1942 and was deported from France to Auschwitz-Birkenau via Transport XVII on 31 October 1942. Although he was murdered, his wife Chaja Grosberg and their children Celine and André did survive the war. Feige’s youngest brother Israel Iszaak was arrested as well and clandestinely married his girlfriend Rachel Mandel at the Dossin barracks on 30 July 1943, the night before the departure of transport XXI to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Neither survived. Feige’s only sister Anna and Anna’s son Armand were deported from the Dossin barracks to Auschwitz-Birkenau via Transport XXV on 19 May 1944. Although Armand was murdered, Anna survived and was repatriated in 1945. Transport XXV also carried Feige’s brother Abraham and his wife Elka Wajnsztok and the parents of the Lipschitz siblings Leibus Joel Lipchitz and Haia Sipa Lebenthal. All were murdered. However, Feige’s remaining brothers Samuel and Lazar Lipschitz managed to flee to England in 1940 where they changed their name to Lipton. Samuel joined the army and both survived the war.
- In 1995 Paula Marcovici-Reichman donated reproductions of photos from her family album as well as one original photo (KD_00141_P000830) to the Jewish Museum of Deportation and Resistance, predecessor of Kazerne Dossin. She donated an additional reproduction in 1997 (KD_00141_P001560). A digital copy of a final photo (KD_00141_000001) was added to the collection in 2010.
- Paula Marcovici-Reichman, 1995, 1997 and 2010